Fun Fact 2: Everything in our universe is made up of tiny atoms. So many that just one pin head is made up of millions of atoms. When an object moves it produces kinetic energy as the atoms are moving. Kinetic energy is required for heat to be produced; the atoms must be in motion to transfer the heat from one particle to another.
Fun Fact 3: Thermal energy is also known as heat energy. Thermal heat is transferred between particles. When particles begin to heat up, they start to move more quickly making them vibrate and break bonds between particles. This is when thermal energy is transferred from one atom to another.
Fun Fact 4: There are three main ways in which thermal energy is transferred: conduction, convection and radiation. As you have so far discovered; the Sun is a good example of radiation.
Fun Fact 5: The Earth absorbs thermal heat from the Sun as radiation travels through electromagnetic waves and produces radiant energy.
Fun Fact 6: What is Convection? The definition or description of convection can be explained in this simple way; when thermal energy is transferred between moving gas or liquid particles.
Fun Fact 7: What is Conduction? The definition or description of conduction can be explained in this simple way; the transfer of thermal energy between matters of different temperature. For example, if you put a cold object with a warm object. The warmth will be passed to the cold object through conduction. Conduction continues until both objects reach the same temperature.
Fun Fact 8: If you pick up something hot, such as a hot potato, it might be so hot that it scalds you - this is because thermal heat is transferred from the potato to your skin
Fun Fact 9: If you make a cup of hot chocolate and pour cold milk into it. The hot chocolate will cool down because thermal heat is transferred from the hot liquid to the cool liquid.
Fun Fact 10: Thermal heat can change the state of particles - changing them to gas, liquid or solid form. Different things happen when temperature increases or decreases (goes up and down). For example, water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and it boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
Fun Fact 11: The amount of time it takes to heat something (e.g. water) depends on how much water there is. It takes much longer to heat a whole swimming pool of water than it does to heat a kettle of water.
Fun Fact 12: Thermal energy can cause liquid to change to gas. This is known as vaporization. A good example of this is when thermal energy causes droplets of water to evaporate/vaporize across the sea to form clouds.
Fun Fact 13: Thermal energy can cause gas to liquefy. Condensation is a good example of this. Sometimes condensation can appear on windows, especially in the bathroom when vapour changes to liquid water.
Fun Fact 14: Thermal energy can cause liquid to solidify; this happen when water reaches freezing point and turns to ice.
Fun Fact 15: Thermal energy can cause a solid to melt. The melting process occurs when a solid (such as ice), changes to a liquid (water).